The scientific method is a research process, which is used in the development of scientific knowledge, which complies with measurement and empirical criteria, the fundamental bases, and the execution of different reasoning tests.

This means this method is based on an analysis mechanism that supports the understanding of scientific experiences of which they are not. Through its application, various investigations are carried out, where knowledge is produced that leads to different advances in science.

It is a method that can be defined as an abstraction of various activities, which allows researchers to explain the material and cognitive processes that can develop new knowledge.


Characteristics of the scientific method

This method comprises a series of essential characteristics, such as the following:

  • It is real: It is based on information and observation of concrete measures and data, which can be quantitative or qualitative.
  • It is objective: Through this method, it is expected to provide all knowledge based on concrete facts, setting aside the beliefs or values ​​of the researcher.
  • It requires systematic and controlled experimentation: This is due to the experimentation process’s approach, which has to be carried out carefully so that none of the factors becomes a threat to the safety of the experiment, although the experimental error exists.
  • It is didactic: Many of the daily processes are analyzed through this system. Therefore, it can encourage many young people to become interested in science.
  • Requires empirical verification: All knowledge becomes scientific when verified and has passed the verification test with reality.
  • It needs inductive reasoning: Sometimes, it is usually very useful when observing various particular phenomena, with the aim of generalizing, although it is not considered as a sufficient advance for the advancement of knowledge.
  • Self-correcting: As conceptual inconsistencies arise, this system modifies or rejects its conclusions. Nowadays, it is common for this to happen due to technological advancements that, in this sense, reduce time.
  • It is precise and logical: This method does not work in any way since the steps of its procedure cannot be passed, and the logical order cannot be altered in any way, because then the conclusion would not have any validity.
  • It requires deductive reasoning: When the hypothesis is formulated, certain possible practical consequences are deduced and verified, it is important to specify these deductions.
  • Requires constancy of analysis and synthesis: Through analysis, all the parts that comprise reality can be identified. Through synthesis, each part that is identified is included in the construction of the understanding of a phenomenon.

Principles of the scientific method

Among the fundamental principles of this process are the following:

Refutability

This principle focuses on the scientific statement supported in a specific experiment that can be false or refuted through an experimental counterexample, which proves that it does not have a universal theoretical interpretation.

In case the theory cannot be refuted by means of the counterexample, the affirmation will be accepted but verified since the theories are not totally real.

Reproducibility

It is based on the repetition of a specific experiment, which is carried out by any person in a controlled way in order to obtain the same results. In this way, the verification and its universal verification by the scientific community can be scientifically affirmed.


How an investigation is carried out

It is generally understood that the main objective of the scientific method is the key to projecting an exact modality in order to obtain the reality of the phenomenon to be studied.

The scientific research process is developed by different questions, which is key to improving the phenomenon to be investigated.

From the beginning to a scientific process, there is no strategy since it can be based on personal experience in a specific matter, an analysis of scientific news or magazine, an unsolved problem, or for simple interest to solve some factor in life every day.


What are the steps of the scientific method

This method must carefully follow specific steps that guarantee good scientific results since its basis is based mainly on empirically verifiable evidence. One way to do this when conducting research is to follow each of the following steps:

  • Observation: It is the initial step that centralizes the senses in nature and its phenomena and thus obtains the information needed to project itself into the problem.
  • Induction: It is an attempt to gather fundamental factors that are based on the observed phenomenon.
  • The questions: This is the formulation of issues that relate to what is observed.
  • The hypothesis: It is the stage where the assumptions are made, taking into account all the questions asked during the observation.
  • The experiment: Through the trial, you can test the hypothesis.
  • The conclusion: It is where the analysis of the result of the experiment is carried out, and a conclusion is made of this since it is when the scientist realizes if his hypothesis is false or true.

The scientific method is the experimentation procedure used to investigate observations and, in turn, obtain answers to possible questions. However, not all scientists or researchers use this type of methodology.

Today there are different versions of research depending on the objective you want to study. Although the version can be modified, its purpose remains the same in order to discover the relationship that causes and effect allows, investigate evidence, ask questions, and realize if the information collected can be verified.

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